The Importance of Fine-Tuning Optimization for DBAs
If you’re working as a DBA, you probably find that much of your time is spent tuning database performance. Many DBAs, however, fall into the trap of getting too focused on optimizing SQL statements and application code without considering the impact of the database design and structure itself. The truth is, all the SQL tweaks in the world won’t make much of a difference when you’re running queries against a poorly-organized database. Let’s take a closer look at the importance of fine-tuning optimization for DBAs and discuss some techniques that can be used to optimize the database itself.
Database Optimization Techniques
No matter what DBMS you’re using at your organization, you’re likely to see performance gains if you employ some of the following techniques:
Indexing: Creating indexes for tables is probably one of the most important things a DBA can do to boost database performance. Indexes work by storing data in a way that’s easy to traverse. When an index is in place, a database can efficiently find records that match a given query without performing a table scan.
Partitioning: Another way to fine-tune optimization is through partitioning. This refers to the process of breaking up a very large database table into a number of sections which are then stored in different files. By partitioning a large table into smaller sections, queries that only need to access a certain portion of that table’s data can execute more quickly.
Compression: Compressing data to reduce the amount of disk space used doesn’t just save on storage costs– it can also result in performance gains. When data is compressed and can fit on a smaller number of data pages, the overall I/O requirements go down, which can eliminate bottlenecks and improve performance.
Denormalization: Although this technique should only be employed as a last result, denormalization can sometimes improve query performance when an optimal level of performance can’t be achieved with a fully-normalized design. It’s important to make sure that the performance benefits will outweigh the potential downsides before deciding to denormalize a database.
Adjusting page size: The page size you use can have an impact on database performance. There’s no single ideal page size– both larger and smaller sizes come with advantages and disadvantages. It’s important to test performance as you tweak page sizes and select the smallest page size that can deliver the level of performance you need.
Reorganization: Over time, data in large tables can become fragmented and disorganized, leading to sluggish performance. When databases are reorganized and these inefficiencies are removed, you’ll usually see significant performance gains.
Not every technique described in this list might be the right solution for your current database implementation, but it’s good to keep this list handy for the future. As your application needs evolve and the amount of data being stored increases, solutions that weren’t applicable in the past may be just what you need down the line.
The Role of Automation
One way DBAs can make their role a bit easier is to look at third-party tools and built-in DBMS features to automate certain aspects of database optimization and maintenance. For example, it may be a good idea to put database reorganization on auto-pilot. You could use automation tools to set “rules” for optimization, such as reorganizing table spaces in the database when the cluster ratio drops below a certain level.
It’s no surprise that database performance is a key responsibility for most DBAs– after all, the database serves as the backbone of many businesses, and its performance has a direct impact on the performance of a business’s critical applications. While SQL tuning is an important part of performance optimization, it’s only one piece of the puzzle. Good database design, proper use of indexing, partitioning and clustering are just a few of the other strategies that result in optimal performance. With the tips and techniques outlined in this article, you can ensure that your organization’s DBMS is designed and organized to deliver efficient results.