How to Insert MongoDB Documents from JSON using the Golang Driver

Introduction

This tutorial will explain how to insert MongoDB documents from JSON using the Golang driver. When using the Golang driver to insert MongoDB documents from a JSON file with Golang, MongoDB automatically creates a collection at the time of insertion, so no preexisting documents or collections are required. However, there must be a few MongoDB documents stored in a JSON file on the MongoDB server.

Prerequisites for Indexing MongoDB Documents in a JSON using Golang

  • MongoDB must be installed and running on the server making the Golang API calls. Execute the mongod command in a terminal window to obtain information about the MongoDB daemon processes.

  • Golang must be installed on the same machine and the MongoDB project directory must be in Go’s $GOPATH. More information may be obtained by typing go help gopath or $GOPATH in a terminal window.

  • Confirm the mongo-go-driver package library is installed in the project’s directory in the $GOPATH of the server. Execute the following go get command to install the driver:

go get go.mongodb.org/mongo-driver/mongo

How to Create a JSON File for the MongoDB Documents

As MongoDB automatically creates a database and collection at the time of insertion, there does not have to be any preexisting documents or collections on the MongoDB server. However, there must be a few MongoDB documents stored in a .json file.

The MongoDB JSON documents must be placed inside a JSON array within square brackets [] and each document must be delimited with a comma (,).

Following are a few JSON example used in this tutorial to insert MongoDB documents:

[
{
"_id": 1,
"Field Str": "ä½ å¥½ä¸–ç•Œ",
"Field Int": 12345,
"Field Bool": true
},
{
"_id": 2,
"Field Str": "Hallo Welt",
"Field Int": 42,
"Field Bool": false
},
{
"_id": 3,
"Field Str": "Hello, world",
"Field Int": 98765,
"Field Bool": true
}
]

NOTE: As shown in the below script and image, if the JSON file must be loaded from a relative path outside the $GOPATH, then the path/filepath package can be used to load the file:

docsPath, _ := filepath.Abs("/path/to/json/file/docs.json")
byteValues, err := ioutil.ReadFile(docsPath)

Screenshot of a JSON file with MongoDB documents

How to Import the MongoDB and Go Packages in a Golang Script

First, declare the main() function with the package keyword and then import all of the Golang packages, including the mongo-driver package libraries, as shown in the following script:

package main

import (

// Built-in Golang packages
"context" // manage multiple requests
"fmt" // Println() function
"io/ioutil" // io.ReadFile
"log"
"reflect" // get an object type
"time"

// Import the JSON encoding package
"encoding/json"

// Official 'mongo-go-driver' packages
"go.mongodb.org/mongo-driver/mongo"
"go.mongodb.org/mongo-driver/mongo/options"
)

How to Declare a Go Struct for the MongoDB JSON Document Fields

Execute the following script to create a new struct datatype for the MongoDB fields that can be used to map the JSON data to the respective MongoDB fields:

type MongoFields struct {
//Key string `json:"key,omitempty"`
ID int `json:"_id"`
FieldStr string `json:"Field Str"`
FieldInt int `json:"Field Int"`
FieldBool bool `json:"Field Bool"`
}

The JSON struct tags strings must be defined so the tags are perfectly matched to the actual MongoDB fields in the JSON documents. For example, the JSON document must be json:"some_field" if the MongoDB field is “some_field”, regardless of how the struct’s variable is named.

How to Declare the Main() Function and Connect to MongoDB using the Golang Driver

Execute the following command to declare the main() function and connect to MongoDB using the client library:

func main() {

// Declare host and port options to pass to the Connect() method
clientOptions := options.Client().ApplyURI("mongodb://localhost:27017")
fmt.Println("clientOptions TYPE:", reflect.TypeOf(clientOptions), "n")

// Connect to the MongoDB and return Client instance
client, err := mongo.Connect(context.TODO(), clientOptions)
if err != nil {
log.Fatalf("mongo.Connect() ERROR: %v", err)
}

How to Create a Golang Context Object for the MongoDB API Calls

The following is an example of how to create a Context object with a timeout of three seconds.

// Declare Context type object for managing multiple API requests
ctx, _ := context.WithTimeout(context.Background(), 3*time.Second)

The "time" package must be imported or a basic context object with context.Background() must be instantiated.

Now pass the ctx object instance to the MongoDB API calls.

How to Instantiate a Collection Object from the MongoDB Client Instance

If the collection or database name doesn’t exist, then MongoDB will create it when the JSON documents are inserted with the following script:

// Access a MongoDB collection through a database
col := client.Database("JSON_docs").Collection("JSON Collection")
fmt.Println("Collection type:", reflect.TypeOf(col), "n")

How to Import the JSON File with the Golang’s ‘ioutil’ Package

Go programming language has a package called ioutil that allows for the importation of data into the Golang script from a file.

Read the JSON file using ioutil.ReadFile()

Execute the following script to read the JSON file and return a int8[] byte slice using the ioutil.ReadFile() method to check for any errors:

// Load values from JSON file to model
byteValues, err := ioutil.ReadFile("docs.json")
if err != nil {
// Print any IO errors with the .json file
fmt.Println("ioutil.ReadFile ERROR:", err)
} else {
// Print the values of the JSON docs, and insert them if no error
fmt.Println("ioutil.ReadFile byteValues TYPE:", reflect.TypeOf(byteValues))
fmt.Println("byteValues:", byteValues, "n")
fmt.Println("byteValues:", string(byteValues))

If no errors are returned, proceed to unmarshal the JSON documents from the byte slice.

How to Unmarshal the Byte Slice and Create MongoDB Struct Documents

Execute the following commands to declare an empty Go slice for the MongoFields struct objects and make an empty slice array for the “MongoFields” struct objects to be stored:

// Declare an empty slice for the MongoFields docs
var docs []MongoFields

How to Pass the Bytes Slices to the Unmarshal() Method

Execute the following command to pass the bytes slices to the JSON library’s Unmarshal() method and put slices into the docs struct slice using a pointer (&):

// Unmarshal the encoded JSON byte string into the slice
err = json.Unmarshal(byteValues, &docs)

// Print MongoDB docs object type
fmt.Println("nMongoFields Docs:", reflect.TypeOf(docs))

How to Iterate the MongoDB Documents and Call the Golang Driver’s InsertOne() Method

The final step is to iterate over and parse the MongoDB struct documents so the data can be passed to the MongoDB client library’s InsertOne() method.

Execute the following command to use “range” to iterate the slice of the MongoDB documents:

// Iterate the slice of MongoDB struct docs
for i := range docs {

How to pass each document iteration to the InsertOne() method

Use the following script to pass the struct document to the Collection object’s InsertOne() method and check for errors:

// Put the document element in a new variable
doc := docs[i]
fmt.Println("ndoc _id:", doc.ID)
fmt.Println("doc Field Str:", doc.ID)

// Call the InsertOne() method and pass the context and doc objects
result, insertErr := col.InsertOne(ctx, doc)

Check for any API MongoDB insertion errors

Execute the following script to print the result of the MongoDB API call:

// Check for any insertion errors
if insertErr != nil {
fmt.Println("InsertOne ERROR:", insertErr)
} else {
fmt.Println("InsertOne() API result:", result)
}
}
}
}

Conclusion

This tutorial demonstrated how to use the Golang driver to insert MongoDB documents from JSON with Golang and insert multiple documents, stored in a JSON file, into a MongoDB collection as shown in the following image:

Screenshot of MongoDB compass getting documents inserted from a JSON file in Golang

The article covered how to import the MongoDB and Go packages in a Golang script and to iterate the MongoDB documents. The tutorial also covered how to call the Golang driver’s InsertOne() method, how to instantiate a collection object from the MongoDB Client instance and how to check for any API MongoDB insertion errors. Remember that when creating a Golang Context object for the MongoDB API calls either the "time" package must be imported or a basic context object with context.Background() must be instantiated.

Just the Code

package main

import (

// Built-in Golang packages
"context" // manage multiple requests
"fmt" // Println() function
"io/ioutil" // io.ReadFile
"log"
"reflect" // get an object type
"time"

// Import the JSON

encoding package
"encoding/json"

// Official 'mongo-go-driver' packages
"go.mongodb.org/mongo-driver/mongo"
"go.mongodb.org/mongo-driver/mongo/options"
)

type MongoFields struct {
//Key string `json:"key,omitempty"`
ID int `json:"_id"`
FieldStr string `json:"Field Str"`
FieldInt int `json:"Field Int"`
FieldBool bool `json:"Field Bool"`
}

func main() {

// Declare host and port options to pass to the Connect() method
clientOptions := options.Client().ApplyURI("mongodb://localhost:27017")
fmt.Println("clientOptions TYPE:", reflect.TypeOf(clientOptions), "n")

// Connect to the MongoDB and return Client instance
client, err := mongo.Connect(context.TODO(), clientOptions)
if err != nil {
log.Fatalf("mongo.Connect() ERROR: %v", err)
}

// Declare Context type object for managing multiple API requests
ctx, _ := context.WithTimeout(context.Background(), 3*time.Second)

// Access a MongoDB collection through a database
col := client.Database("JSON_docs").Collection("JSON Collection")
fmt.Println("Collection type:", reflect.TypeOf(col), "n")

// Load values from JSON file to model
byteValues, err := ioutil.ReadFile("docs.json")
if err != nil {
// Print any IO errors with the .json file
fmt.Println("ioutil.ReadFile ERROR:", err)
} else {
// Print the values of the JSON docs, and insert them if no error
fmt.Println("ioutil.ReadFile byteValues TYPE:", reflect.TypeOf(byteValues))
fmt.Println("byteValues:", byteValues, "n")
fmt.Println("byteValues:", string(byteValues))

// Declare an empty slice for the MongoFields docs
var docs []MongoFields

// Unmarshal the encoded JSON byte string into the slice
err = json.Unmarshal(byteValues, &docs)

// Print MongoDB docs object type
fmt.Println("nMongoFields Docs:", reflect.TypeOf(docs))

// Iterate the slice of MongoDB struct docs
for i := range docs {

// Put the document element in a new variable
doc := docs[i]
fmt.Println("ndoc _id:", doc.ID)
fmt.Println("doc Field Str:", doc.ID)

// Call the InsertOne() method and pass the context and doc objects
result, insertErr := col.InsertOne(ctx, doc)

// Check for any insertion errors
if insertErr != nil {
fmt.Println("InsertOne ERROR:", insertErr)
} else {
fmt.Println("InsertOne() API result:", result)
}
}
}
}

Pilot the ObjectRocket Platform Free!

Try Fully-Managed CockroachDB, Elasticsearch, MongoDB, PostgreSQL (Beta) or Redis.

Get Started

Keep in the know!

Subscribe to our emails and we’ll let you know what’s going on at ObjectRocket. We hate spam and make it easy to unsubscribe.